From Cory Aquino to PGMA

Ninoy & Cory T-shirt

Continue reading “From Cory Aquino to PGMA”

400 Years (1521-1921) Timeline in Tagalog

Timeline of 400 years of Philippine history, as written in 1922.

1521.—Ika-26 ng Marzo, kaunaunahang pagdatal sa Pilipinas ng mga kastila.

1863.—Ika 30 ng Nobyembre, kapanganakan kay Andrés Bonifacio.

1872.—Ika 28 ng Pebrero, pagbitay kiná Gomez, Burgos at Zamora.

1892.—Ika 26 ng Hunyo, paglunsad ni Rizal sa Maynila.

1892.—Ika 7 ng Hulyo, pagkakapabilanggo kay Rizal ni General Despujol, sa Fuerza de Santiago.

1892.—Ika 7 ng Hulyo, pagkakatatag ng “Katipunan.”

1896.—Ika 1 ng Enero, pagkakahalal sa mga magsisibuo ng Panguluhan ng “Katipunan.”

1896.—Ika 1 ng Enero, unang labas ng pahayagan ng “Katipunan” na ang pamagat ay “Kalayaan.”

1896.—Buwan ng Mayo, sinugo ni Bonifacio si Dr. Valenzuela kay Rizal.

1896.—Ika 5 ng Hulyo, sulat ng pinuno ng sibil na si Sityar sa mga pinunong kastila sa Maynila.

1896.—Ika 5 ng Agosto, paglunsad ni Rizal sa Maynila buhat sa Dapitan.

1896.—Ika 5 ng Agosto, tinangka ng mga “Katipunan” na iligtas si Rizal.

1896.—Ika 13 ng Agosto, sulat ng “cura” sa Sampiro kay Luengo.

1896.—Ika 17 ng Agosto, pulong na idinaos ng “Katipunan” sa “Kankong.”

1896.—Ika 19 ng Agosto, pagkatuklas ng “Katipunan” ni P. Mariano Gil.

1896.—Ika 27 ng Agosto, paglipat nina Bonifacio sa Balakbak.

1896.—Ika 28 ng Agosto, pagkalagda ng pahayag sa paghihimagsik.

1896.—Ika 29 ng Agosto, pasyang pagsimula ng paghihimagsik, na iniuutos sa pahayag ni Bonifacio.

1896.—Ika 29 ng Agosto, pagkakalabanang mahigpit ng mga “Katipunan” at kawal ng kastila sa Balintawak at iba pa.

1896.—Ika 30 ng Agosto, araw na ipinasyang pagsalakay sa Maynila.

1896.—Ika 30 ng Agosto, ipinasya ni General Blanco na gawing pook ng digmaan ang mga lalawigang Maynila, Bulakan at iba pa.

1896.—Ika 4 ng Septiembre, kaunaunahang mga ipinabaril ng mga kastila.
Continue reading “400 Years (1521-1921) Timeline in Tagalog”

The Fall of the Philippines during WWII

General Douglas MacArthur, under orders from Roosevelt, secretly left the Philippines by PT boat for Australia on March 11, 1942, leaving Major-General Wainwright in command. Upon arriving in Australia, MacArthur proclaimed: “I came through and I shall return.” Despite a determined defense by the hungry and disease-ridden American and Filipino troops, Bataan was forced to surrender on April 9, 1942. Almost 78,000 troops were captured by the Japanese. But for the defenders of the peninsula, the ordeal was only the beginning. The “Bataan Death March” was to severely test the resolve of Allied soldiers. Many troops died of exhaustion or hunger, as well as at the hands of their merciless captors during the sixty-mile trek to the prison at Camp O’Donnell.
Continue reading “The Fall of the Philippines during WWII”

Battle of the Philippines, 1941-1942

Battle of Philippines:
December 8, 1941 – May 6, 1942

The attack on the Philippines started on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. As at Pearl Harbor, the American aircraft were entirely destroyed on the ground. Lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines withdrew to Java on December 12, 1941.
Continue reading “Battle of the Philippines, 1941-1942”

Battle of Bataan and Death March

Bataan is a province on the Bataan Peninsula of the large island of Luzon.

The Battle of Bataan was one of the last stands of American and Filipino soldiers before they were overwhelmed by imperial Japanese forces during World War II. It is the largest surrender of American and Filipino troops in military history.

Date: January 7 – April 9, 1942

US Commanders: Douglas MacArthur, Jonathan Wainwright
Filipino Commander: Vicente Lim
Japanese Commander: Masaharu Homma

US and Filipino forces: 79,500 soldiers
Japanese forces: 75,000 soldiers

Bataan Death March (1942)
About 76,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war were captured by the Japanese during the Battle of Bataan. The POWs were made to march from the Bataan peninsula to prison camps to the north.

The True Decalogue by Apolinario Mabini

by Apolinario Mabini

First. Thou shalt love God and thy honor above all things: God as the fountain of all truth, of all justice and of all activity; and thy honor, the only power which will oblige thee to be faithful, just and industrious.

Second. Thou shalt worship God in the form which thy conscience may deem most righteous and worthy: for in thy conscience, which condemns thy evil deeds and praises thy good ones, speaks thy God.

Third. Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts which God has granted thee, working and studying according to thy ability, never leaving the path of righteousness and justice, in order to attain thy own perfection, by means whereof thou shalt contribute to the progress of humanity; thus; thou shalt fulfill the mission to which God has appointed thee in this life and by so doing, thou shalt be honored, and being honored, thou shalt glorify thy God.

Fourth. Thou shalt love thy country after God and thy honor and more than thyself: for she is the only Paradise which God has given thee in this life, the only patrimony of thy race, the only inheritance of thy ancestors and the only hope of thy posterity; because of her, thou hast life, love and interests, happiness, honor and God.

Fifth. Thou shalt strive for the happiness of thy country before thy own, making of her the kingdom of reason, of justice and of labor: for if she be happy, thou, together with thy family, shalt likewise be happy.

Sixth. Thou shalt strive for the independence of thy country: for only thou canst have any real interest in her advancement and exaltation, because her independence constitutes thy own liberty; her advancement, thy perfection; and her exaltation, thy own glory and immortality.

Seventh. Thou shalt not recognize in thy country the authority of any person who has not been elected by thee and thy countrymen; for authority emanates from God, and as God speaks in the conscience of every man, the person designated and proclaimed by the conscience of a whole people is the only one who can use true authority.

Eighth. Thou shalt strive for a Republic and never for a monarchy in thy country: for the latter exalts one or several families and founds a dynasty; the former makes a people noble and worthy through reason, great through liberty, and prosperous and brilliant through labor.

Ninth. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself: for God has imposed upon him, as well as upon thee, the obligation to help thee and not to do unto thee what he would not have thee do unto him; but if thy neighbor, failing in this sacred duty, attempt against thy life, thy liberty and thy interests, then thou shalt destroy and annihilate him for the supreme law of self-preservation prevails.

Tenth. Thou shalt consider thy countryman more than thy neighbor; thou shalt see him thy friend, thy brother or at least thy comrade, with whom thou art bound by one fate, by the same joys and sorrows and by common aspirations and interests.

Therefore, as long as national frontiers subsist, raised and maintained by the selfishness of race and of family, with thy countryman alone shalt thou unite in a perfect solidarity of purpose and interest, in order to have force, not only to resist the common enemy but also to attain all the aims of human life.

Jose Rizal & La Solidaridad

Three Members of La Solidaridad - Rizal, Del Pilar, Mariano Ponce
The Filipino colony in Spain had established a fortnightly review, published first in Barcelona and later in Madrid, to enlighten Spaniards on their distant colony, and Rizal wrote for it from the start. Its name was La Solidaridad, and it pushed for the same laws and the same privileges for the Peninsula and the possessions overseas.

From the Philippines came news of a contemptible attempt to reach Rizal through his family—one of many similar petty persecutions. His sister Lucia’s husband had died and the corpse was refused interment in consecrated ground, upon the pretext that the dead man, who had been exceptionally liberal to the church and was of unimpeachable character, had been negligent in his religious duties. Another individual with a notorious record of longer absence from confession died about the same time, and his funeral took place from the church without demur. The ugly feature about the refusal to bury Hervosa was that the telegram from the friar parish-priest to the Archbishop at Manila in asking instructions, was careful to mention that the deceased was a brother-in-law of Rizal. Doctor Rizal wrote a scorching article for La Solidaridad under the caption “An Outrage,” and took the matter up with the Spanish Colonial Minister, then Becerra, a professed Liberal. But that weakling statesman, more liberal in words than in actions, did nothing. Continue reading “Jose Rizal & La Solidaridad”

Images of Josephine Bracken

While still in Dapitan, Jose Rizal met an 18-year-old petite Irish girl named Josephine Bracken. Her agreement to marry made him suspect her of being an agent of the Spanish friars. She eventually became his common-law wife.

Photograph of Josephine Bracken

Below is a carved portrait of Josefina Bracken based on a photograph.

Carved Portrait of Josephine Bracken

Josefina or Josephine Bracken

Photograph of Josephine Bracken as Mrs. José Rizal in Dapitan. Rumors were that she miscarried Rizal’s child after he played a prank on her.