Joseph Estrada, Actor

The Tagalog words for 'president' are pangulo and presidente.


Joseph Estrada (1937 - )
President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. He was a popular former action film star before being elected president. During his term in office, he was arrested and stood trial at a congressional impeachment hearing on charges of accepting bribes and corruption. While this trial was aborted when the senators voted 11 to 10 not to open incriminating evidence against him, he was ousted from power anyway as a peaceful People’s Power II revolution arose and called for his resignation.

Ferdinand Marcos (1917 - 1989)
President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Declared martial law on September 21, 1972. After the People Power revolution in February 1986, he was ousted from power and lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii, where he died in 1989.

Corazon Cojuangco Aquino (1933 - )
President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. Ninoy Aquino’s widow. With Salvador Laurel as running mate, she led the opposition that overthrew the authoritarian government of Marcos, who went into exile after the successful People’s Power revolution of 1986.

Fidel V. Ramos (1928 - )
President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. As head of the Constabulary under President Marcos, he was instrumental in helping to design and implement martial law. Together with General Ponce Enrile and the RAM, he defected from the government in 1986 and joined the People’s Power revolution that ousted Marcos from power.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1947 - )
The current president of the Philippines. She is the second Filipina president, after Corazon Aquino. She served as vice president under President Estrada and became president when he was forced to step down for malfeasance, through the People’s Power II revolution. PGMA has confronted some of the same obstacles as did her father, President Diosdado Macapagal, when he tried to clean up corruption in government. Her government continues enjoy political legitimacy in the face of opposition.