Fidel V. Ramos

The Tagalog words for 'president' are pangulo and presidente.



Fidel V. Ramos (1928 - )
President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. As head of the Constabulary under President Marcos, he was instrumental in helping to design and implement martial law. Together with General Ponce Enrile and the RAM, he defected from the government in 1986 and joined the People’s Power revolution that ousted Marcos from power. His presidency is remembered for better integrating the national economy in the global scheme.

Joseph Estrada (1937 - )
President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. He was a popular former action film star before being elected president. During his term in office, he was arrested and stood trial at a congressional impeachment hearing on charges of accepting bribes and corruption. While this trial was aborted when the senators voted 11 to 10 not to open incriminating evidence against him, he was ousted from power anyway as a peaceful People’s Power II revolution arose and called for his resignation

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1947 - )
The current president of the Philippines. Known as GMA or PGMA. She is the second Filipina president, after Corazon Aquino. She served as vice president under President Estrada and became president when he was forced to step down for malfeasance, through the People’s Power II revolution. PGMA has confronted some of the same obstacles as did her father, President Diosdado Macapagal, when he tried to clean up corruption in government. Her government continues enjoy political legitimacy in the face of opposition.